keeping vocabulary

Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control

of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements

in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The

study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by

investigating the effect of vocabulary notebooks on EFL students’ vocabulary acquisition.

Students in three lower intermediate EFL classes participated in the study.

A vocabulary notebook program was implemented in one class over a 4-week period,

with the remaining two classes acting as control groups, following the same curriculum

with the same materials but without keeping vocabulary notebooks. Receptive

and controlled productive vocabulary tests revealed significantly greater learning

of the target words in the treatment group. In addition, students in the treatment

group demonstrated a greater tendency to use the target words in free writing compositions.

However, a positive impact on learner autonomy – as has been reported

in previous studies (McCarthy, 1990) – was not observed. These findings lead the

authors to conclude that vocabulary notebooks can be an effective learning tool in

EFL classrooms, but positive impacts on learner autonomy may not be seen in the

absence of appropriate motivation for language learning.


Verb (infinitive)

Past form


accept accepted aceptar
account accounted tener en cuenta
achieve achieved lograr
act acted actuar
add added sumar
admit admited admitir
affect affected afectar
agree agreed estar de acuerdo
aim aimed apuntar
allow allowed permitir
answer answered responder
appear appeared aparecer
apply applied aplicar
argue argued discutir
arrange arranged arreglar / consertar
arrive arrived llegar
ask asked preguntar
attack attacked atacar
avoid avoided evitar
base based basarse
beat beat vencer / apanar
become became volverse
begin began empezar
believe believed creer
belong belonged pertenecer
break broke romper
build built construir
burn burnt quemar
buy bought comprar
call called llamar
can could poder
can could poder
care cared importar
carry carried cargar / llevar
catch caught atrapar
cause caused causar
change changed cambiar
charge charged cobrar
check checked comprobar / controlar
choose chose elejir
claim claimed reclamar
clean cleaned limpiar
clear cleared despejar
climb climbed trepar
close closed cerrar
collect collected recolectar
come came venir
commit commited cometer
compare compared comparar
complain complained reclamar
complete completed completar
concern concerned concernir
confirm confirmed confirmar
connect connected conectar
consider considered considerar
consist consisted consistir
contact contacted contactar
contain contained contenet
continue continued continuar
contribute contributed contribuir
control controled controlar
cook cooked cocinar
copy copied copiar
correct corrected corregir
cost cost costar
count counted contar
cover covered cubrir
create created crear